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Chia seed oil

Chia seed oil is cold-pressed extracted from the chia seeds commonly referred to as a superfood.

Chia seed oil is an especially great option for vegetarians and vegans to obtain omega-3 fatty acids from a botanical source. It is a popular supplement due to its high level of alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) which cannot be produced by the body, but must be obtained through the diet alone. Chia seed oil is also used in the food industry as a cooking oil and as a popular ingredient in various salad dressings. In the cosmetic industry chia seed oil is used in body creams and lotions used topically to treat dry skin and promote healthier hair.

The seeds yield 25–30% extractable oil

Candlenut oil

The Candlenut, is a flowering tree, in the Euphorbiaceae family, also known as Candleberry, Indian walnut, Kemiri, Varnish tree, Nuez de la India, Buah keras or Kukui nut tree. A medium or large sized, spreading, tropical tree up to 50-80ft tall. Cooked nuts are generally edible, although some strains contain high amounts of cyanide. Usually the nut is pressed for its oil, which is used for a variety of industrial purposes like soap making, varnishes, and fuel. The oil is sometimes used medicinally similar to castor oil, as well as a laxative. In Southeast Asia, the oil is sometimes applied topically to treat headaches, fevers and swollen joints. In Ancient Hawaii, kukui nuts were burned to provide light. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib, lit one end, and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. This led to their use as a measure of time. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a “kukui hele po” (light, darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. Other uses of the oil were found in Hawaii such as a coating of fishing nets with kukui oil in order to preserve them. In Tonga, even today, ripe nuts, named tuitui are pounded into a paste, tukilamulamu, and used as soap or shampoo. As recently as 1993, candlenuts were chewed into sweet-scented emollient utilized during a traditional funerary ritual in the outlying islands of the Kingdom of Tonga. Their scent was also used for making various sweet smelling oils for the skin.

Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. In plantations, each tree will produce 30-80 kg of nuts, and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. They grow very well in tropical climates with ample rainfall, but also adapt to dry climates. Candlenut's need little if any care after they are established.

Kukui Nut Oil is a clear, pale, yellow, non-greasy oil, ranking very high amongst polyunsaturated vegetable oils, and can be used for skin and hair care. It is high in linoleic and linolenic acids. Kukui nut Oil also contains Vitamin A, E and F, and therefore, it is a good oil for anti-aging, revitalising and especially restoring sun damaged skin. The oil has been known to be often used in products that treat psoriasis and eczema, as well as acne.

Green coffee bean oil

Coffee plants are native to the tropical regions of South America, Asia and Africa. The plant is a small shrub that typically reaches 3-4 meters in height. The seeds of the coffee plant are commonly referred to as beans. Roasting coffee beans changes the chemical and aromatic composition of the beans. Green Coffee Oil is rich in phytosterols that promote excellent moisture retention, quick penetration and good adherence within cosmetic applications. It is also exceptionally high in its composition of essential fatty acids.

Brazil Nut Oil

The Brazil nut is, in fact, a seed rather than a nut, but popular usage continues to prevail. Nutritionally, Brazil nuts are an excellent source of selenium and a good source of magnesium and thiamine. There are 14% protein, 11% carbohydrates, and 67% fat (1). The fat breakdown is roughly 25% saturated, 41% monounsaturated, and 34% polyunsaturated. The absolute saturated fat content of Brazil nuts is among the highest of all nuts, surpassing even macadamia nuts.

The proteins found in Brazil nuts are very high in sulfur-containing amino acids like cysteine (8%) and methionine (18%) and are also extremely rich in glutamine, glutamic acid, and arginine. The presence of these amino acids enhances the absorption of selenium and other minerals in the nut.

As with most nuts, the Brazil nut is rich in oils, variously reported at 65-70% of seed dry weight. Brazil nut oil is clear yellowish oil, which has a pleasant and sweet smell and taste.

Its texture and aroma gives it great versatility for use in a wide array of innovative personal care products. Brazil Nut Oil's high selenium content offers strong antioxidant properties. When used in personal care products, Brazil Oil hydrates and softens the skin.

Today, Brazil nut oil is used in soaps, shampoos and hair conditioning/repair products. As a hair conditioner it brings shine, silkiness, malleability and softness to hair. It helps renew dry, lifeless hair and split-ends and allows hair to remain soft and silky. It provides stabilising detergent properties and helps clean the hair.

Tucuma Oil

The tucumã kernel oil is very similar in appearance, consistency and properties to the the palm kernel oil. It is ideal for cooking. Due to their low level of free acids the refining process becomes much simpler compared to the palm oil. The high concentration of lauric acid (47%) detected in the tucumã kernel oil qualifies it with excellent properties for soap processing. Rich in omega 3, 6 and 9, it is an excellent moisturizer, used in cosmetics for skin hydration, body lotions and hair care products for damaged hair. It is also an excellent emollient with high spreadability. This oils is rich in beta-carotene being ideal for sun related skin care.

The fruit oil is highly nutritious containing one of the highest concentrations of β-carotene (180 to 330 mg/100 g of oil), only equaling the value of buriti pulp (Mauritia flexuosa). This exceptional high natural concentration of β-carotene, known as one of the most powerful natural antioxidants, forms a protective film and enhances the brilliance and vitality of dry and brittle hair. Contains high levels of vitamins A and C, in addition to the anti-oxidant properties, the topical application of these vitamins can improve the elasticity and firmness of the skin.

Tamanu Oil

The tamanu tree is indigenous to tropical Southeast Asia; it is found in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, South India, Sri Lanka, and the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. It grows up to three meters tall, sporting cracked, black bark and elliptical, shiny leaves. The tamanu tree blooms twice annually with fragrant, white flowers, which later yield clusters of yellow-skinned spherical fruit. The fruit's pulp tastes similar to an apple, within which a large nut is embedded. The nut contains an odorless pale kernel. This kernel is dried in the sun until it becomes sticky with a dark, thick, rich oil; it must be protected from humidity and rain during drying.

This sticky oil is cold-pressed to make a greenish oil. Polynesian Natives believed the tamanu tree was a sacred gift of nature. It was an answer to skin protection from hot sun, high humidity and ocean wind.

It is reputed to have wondrous wound-healing properties, as well as being a cure-all for almost every skin ailment you can think of, from acne to eczema to psoriasis, but all of the miraculous claims are hinged on anecdotal, not scientific, evidence. There’s no harm in using this oil in skin care.

Based on those traditional uses, tamanu oil has been thoroughly researched, and the conclusive evidence on its ability to heal damaged skin is overwhelming. Its benefits are notable for scarring, stretch marks, minor cuts and abrasions, rashes, sores, and much more. It can be used directly on the skin or mixed within formulations. Stores well under any condition but extreme heat will lessen the shelf life.

Tamanu oil has a rich, deep scent with a bold dark colour and because of this it may alter the colour and aroma of cosmetic creations. Tamanu oil may naturally separate or solidify at cold temperatures.

Argan Oil

Argan oil is extracted from the fruit's kernel of the argan tree (Argania spinosa). Nicknamed the "the tree of life," this wild, thorny tree grows exclusively in southwestern Morocco. It can grow as high as eight to ten meters and can live up to two hundred years.

Argan oil, due to its high content of vitamin E, is ideal to fight against dryness and skin ageing process. It is perfect also to strengthen the nails thanks to the presence of unsaponifiables.

Very trendy oil in cosmetic products, many laboratories are using this oil for nail and hair cares, but also for creams and lotions. The oil, even expensive, is also used by of soaps manufacturers.

A Argan tree gives 180kg of fruits a year. It takes 30kg of Argan fruits to get 2 kg of Argan kernel which is the minimum quantity of kernel to get 1kg of Argan oil (when the yield can reach 50%).

Prickly Pear Oil

This cactus plant of the Cactaceae family [1], originated from Mexico, was introduced into North Africa in the 16th century [2]. Nowadays, Opuntia Ficus Indica grows everywhere in Morocco. Seeds contained in the pulp, accounts for 2 to 10% [3,4]. And it was reported that oil content varies according to the origin of the seed. The Italian cultivar was about 9.14% [5] when Moroccan one contain between 5 to 6%. The Tunisian cultivar has about 11% [8], South African one 5-6% and Chinese 6% [10].

So, we can conclude that the oil content in the prickly seed will be between 5 to 10% according to the cultivar used for the extraction. And finally, we can say that to get 1 kg of oil, between 300 and 500kg of fresh fruits will be needed.

The oil processed from the seeds is characterized by a high degree of unsaturation wherein linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.1–77%). Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids can count for more than 80% [8] of the total fatty acids.

The sterol fraction is usually about 1% of TL withβ-sitosterol as sterol marker, representing 72% of the total sterol content in seed oil.