Commercial name Kemiri oil
CAS # 8015-80-3
Botanical name Aleurites moluccana
Plant part Seed
Manufacturing place Indonesia
The Candlenut, is a flowering tree, in the Euphorbiaceae family, also known as Candleberry, Indian walnut, Kemiri, Varnish tree, Nuez de la India, Buah keras or Kukui nut tree. A medium or large sized, spreading, tropical tree up to 50-80ft tall. Cooked nuts are generally edible, although some strains contain high amounts of cyanide. Usually the nut is pressed for its oil, which is used for a variety of industrial purposes like soap making, varnishes, and fuel.
The oil is sometimes used medicinally similar to castor oil, as well as a laxative. In Southeast Asia, the oil is sometimes applied topically to treat headaches, fevers and swollen joints.
In Ancient Hawaii, kukui nuts were burned to provide light. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib, lit one end, and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. This led to their use as a measure of time. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a “kukui hele po” (light, darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.
Other uses of the oil were found in Hawaii such as a coating of fishing nets with kukui oil in order to preserve them.
In Tonga, even today, ripe nuts, named tuitui are pounded into a paste, tukilamulamu, and used as soap or shampoo. As recently as 1993, candlenuts were chewed into sweet-scented emollient utilized during a traditional funerary ritual in the outlying islands of the Kingdom of Tonga. Their scent was also used for making various sweet smelling oils for the skin.
Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. In plantations, each tree will produce 30-80 kg of nuts, and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. They grow very well in tropical climates with ample rainfall, but also adapt to dry climates. Candlenut’s need little if any care after they are established.
Kukui Nut Oil is a clear, pale, yellow, non-greasy oil, ranking very high amongst polyunsaturated vegetable oils, and can be used for skin and hair care.
It is high in linoleic and linolenic acids. Kukui nut Oil also contains Vitamin A, E and F, and therefore, it is a good oil for anti-aging, revitalising and especially restoring sun damaged skin. The oil has been known to be often used in products that treat psoriasis and eczema, as well as acne.
Commercial name Kemiri oil
Parameters Limits Test methods
Appearance Clear, light yellowish liquid Visual
Aroma Light odor Organoleptic
Extraction method Cold press N/A
Relative density 0.909 – 0.915 –
Refractive index 1.466 – 1.470 –
Acid Value < 8% P.E. 2.5.1 Peroxide Value < 10 mEq/Kg P.E. 2.5.5 Saponification value 185-195 AOCS Cd 1-85 Iodine value 80-88 AOCS Ca 3a-46 Insoluble Impurities < 0.1% AOCS Ca 3a-46 Linolenic Acid 15-35% AOCS Ce 1e-91 Linoleic Acid 25-55% AOCS Ce 1e-91 Oleic Acid 15-35% AOCS Ce 1e-91 Palmitic Acid 1-10% AOCS Ce 1e-91 Stearic Acid 1-8% AOCS Ce 1e-91
Rich in Omega 3 and Omega 6
Soothing, a must for dry skin
Efficient against eczema, psoriasis and burns
Efficient for dry scalp treatment
Product description Product specification MSDS
(1) FAO (1993) – “Selected species and strategies to enhance income generation from Amazonian Forest”
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So, we can conclude that the oil content in the prickly seed will be between 5 to 10% according to the cultivar used for the extraction. And finally, we can say that to get 1 kg of oil, between 300 and 500kg of fresh fruits will be needed.
The oil processed from the seeds is characterized by a high degree of unsaturation wherein linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.1–77%). Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids can count for more than 80%  of the total fatty acids.
The sterol fraction is usually about 1% of TL withβ-sitosterol as sterol marker, representing 72% of the total sterol content in seed oil.
Argan oil is extracted from the fruit's kernel of the argan tree (Argania spinosa). Nicknamed the "the tree of life," this wild, thorny tree grows exclusively in southwestern Morocco. It can grow as high as eight to ten meters and can live up to two hundred years.
Argan oil, due to its high content of vitamin E, is ideal to fight against dryness and skin ageing process. It is perfect also to strengthen the nails thanks to the presence of unsaponifiables.
Very trendy oil in cosmetic products, many laboratories are using this oil for nail and hair cares, but also for creams and lotions. The oil, even expensive, is also used by of soaps manufacturers.A Argan tree gives 180kg of fruits a year. It takes 30kg of Argan fruits to get 2 kg of Argan kernel which is the minimum quantity of kernel to get 1kg of Argan oil (when the yield can reach 50%).
The tamanu tree is indigenous to tropical Southeast Asia; it is found in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, South India, Sri Lanka, and the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. It grows up to three meters tall, sporting cracked, black bark and elliptical, shiny leaves. The tamanu tree blooms twice annually with fragrant, white flowers, which later yield clusters of yellow-skinned spherical fruit. The fruit's pulp tastes similar to an apple, within which a large nut is embedded. The nut contains an odorless pale kernel. This kernel is dried in the sun until it becomes sticky with a dark, thick, rich oil; it must be protected from humidity and rain during drying.
This sticky oil is cold-pressed to make a greenish oil. Polynesian Natives believed the tamanu tree was a sacred gift of nature. It was an answer to skin protection from hot sun, high humidity and ocean wind.
It is reputed to have wondrous wound-healing properties, as well as being a cure-all for almost every skin ailment you can think of, from acne to eczema to psoriasis, but all of the miraculous claims are hinged on anecdotal, not scientific, evidence. There’s no harm in using this oil in skin care.
Based on those traditional uses, tamanu oil has been thoroughly researched, and the conclusive evidence on its ability to heal damaged skin is overwhelming. Its benefits are notable for scarring, stretch marks, minor cuts and abrasions, rashes, sores, and much more. It can be used directly on the skin or mixed within formulations. Stores well under any condition but extreme heat will lessen the shelf life.
Tamanu oil has a rich, deep scent with a bold dark colour and because of this it may alter the colour and aroma of cosmetic creations. Tamanu oil may naturally separate or solidify at cold temperatures.