|Commercial name||Prickly pear seed oil|
|Botanical name||Opuntia ficus-Indica|
Prickly Pear Oil
This cactus plant of the Cactaceae family , originated from Mexico, was introduced into North Africa in the 16th century . Nowadays, Opuntia Ficus Indica grows everywhere in Morocco.
Seeds contained in the pulp, accounts for 2 to 10% [3,4]. And it was reported that oil content varies according to the origin of the seed. The Italian cultivar was about 9.14%  when Moroccan one contain between 5 to 6%. The Tunisian cultivar has about 11% , South African one 5-6% and Chinese 6% .
So, we can conclude that the oil content in the prickly seed will be between 5 to 10% according to the cultivar used for the extraction. And finally, we can say that to get 1 kg of oil, between 300 and 500kg of fresh fruits will be needed.
The oil processed from the seeds is characterized by a high degree of unsaturation wherein linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.1–77%). Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids can count for more than 80%  of the total fatty acids.
The sterol fraction is usually about 1% of TL withβ-sitosterol as sterol marker, representing 72% of the total sterol content in seed oil.
- IDENTIFICATION DATA
- STEROLS AND VITAMINS E COMPOSITIONposition
- TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS
|Acid Value||< 4%||P.E. 2.5.1|
|Peroxide Value||< 10 mEq/Kg||P.E. 2.5.5|
|Saponification value||192-195||AOCS Cd 1-85|
|Insoluble Impurities||< 0.001%||AOCS Ca 3a-46|
|Linoleic Acid||55-65%||AOCS Ce 1e-91|
|Oleic Acid||15-30%||AOCS Ce 1e-91|
|Palmitic Acid||10-15%||AOCS Ce 1e-91|
|Stearic Acid||2-5%||AOCS Ce 1e-91|
|Total sterols (mg/100g)||9.33||PE 2.4.23|
|Campestrol||1.0 – 2.0 %|
|Total Tocopherols (mg/100g)||100-110||AOCS Ce 8-89|
Rich in Vitamin E
Good Source of Alpha (α-), Beta (β-) and Sigma (δ-) Tocopherols
|Product description||Product specification||IFRA 48|
(1) Reyes Aguero, J. A., Aguirre-Riveran, J. R., Hernandez, H. M., Systematic Notes and a detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL. (Cactacteae), Agrociencia, 39 (2005) 395-408.
(2) Griffiths, P., The origins of an important cactus crops, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence. Am. J. Bot., 91 (2004) 1915-1921.
(3) Arrizon, J., Calderon, C., Sandoval, G., Effect of different fermentation conditions on the kinetic parameters and production of volatile compounds during the elaboration of a prickly pear distilled beverage. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33 (11) (2006) 921-928.
(4) Piga, A., Cactus Pear: a fruit of nutraceutical and functional importance. J. Prof. Assoc. Cactus Dev, 6 (2004) 9-22.
(5) Salvo, F., Galati, E. M., Lo Curto, S., Tripodo, M. M., Study on the chemical characterization of lipid composition of Opuntia ficus indica L. seed oil. Riv. Ital. Sostanze grasse, 79 (2002) 395-398.
(6) Sawaya, W. N., Khan, P.. Chemical characrterization of prickly pear seed oil, Opuntia ficus-indica. Journal of Food Science, 47 (1982) 2060-2061.
(7) Stintzing, F. C., Schieber, A. & Carle, R., Cactus pear, a promising component of functional food. Obst, Gemu ̈se und Kartoffelverarbeitung , 85 (1) (2000) 40-47.
(8) Ennouri, M., Evelyne, B., Laurence, M., Hamadi, A., Fatty acid composition and rheological behaviour of prickly per seed oils. Food Chem, 93 (2005) 431-437.
(9) Labuschagne, M. and Hugo, A., South Africa, oil content and fatty acid composition of cactus pear seed compared with cotton and grape seed. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 34 (1) (2010) 93-100.
(10) Wei, L., Yu-Jie, F., Yuan-Gang, Z., Mei-Hong, T., Nan, W., Xiao-Lei, L., Su, Z., Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw and its antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 114(2009) 334-339.
Need Google Scholar Need PubMed Need NCBI
The tamanu tree is indigenous to tropical Southeast Asia; it is found in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, South India, Sri Lanka, and the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. It grows up to three meters tall, sporting cracked, black bark and elliptical, shiny leaves. The tamanu tree blooms twice annually with fragrant, white flowers, which later yield clusters of yellow-skinned spherical fruit. The fruit's pulp tastes similar to an apple, within which a large nut is embedded. The nut contains an odorless pale kernel. This kernel is dried in the sun until it becomes sticky with a dark, thick, rich oil; it must be protected from humidity and rain during drying.
This sticky oil is cold-pressed to make a greenish oil. Polynesian Natives believed the tamanu tree was a sacred gift of nature. It was an answer to skin protection from hot sun, high humidity and ocean wind.
It is reputed to have wondrous wound-healing properties, as well as being a cure-all for almost every skin ailment you can think of, from acne to eczema to psoriasis, but all of the miraculous claims are hinged on anecdotal, not scientific, evidence. There’s no harm in using this oil in skin care.
Based on those traditional uses, tamanu oil has been thoroughly researched, and the conclusive evidence on its ability to heal damaged skin is overwhelming. Its benefits are notable for scarring, stretch marks, minor cuts and abrasions, rashes, sores, and much more. It can be used directly on the skin or mixed within formulations. Stores well under any condition but extreme heat will lessen the shelf life.
Tamanu oil has a rich, deep scent with a bold dark colour and because of this it may alter the colour and aroma of cosmetic creations. Tamanu oil may naturally separate or solidify at cold temperatures.
Argan oil is extracted from the fruit's kernel of the argan tree (Argania spinosa). Nicknamed the "the tree of life," this wild, thorny tree grows exclusively in southwestern Morocco. It can grow as high as eight to ten meters and can live up to two hundred years.
Argan oil, due to its high content of vitamin E, is ideal to fight against dryness and skin ageing process. It is perfect also to strengthen the nails thanks to the presence of unsaponifiables.
Very trendy oil in cosmetic products, many laboratories are using this oil for nail and hair cares, but also for creams and lotions. The oil, even expensive, is also used by of soaps manufacturers.A Argan tree gives 180kg of fruits a year. It takes 30kg of Argan fruits to get 2 kg of Argan kernel which is the minimum quantity of kernel to get 1kg of Argan oil (when the yield can reach 50%).
The Brazil nut is, in fact, a seed rather than a nut, but popular usage continues to prevail. Nutritionally, Brazil nuts are an excellent source of selenium and a good source of magnesium and thiamine. There are 14% protein, 11% carbohydrates, and 67% fat (1). The fat breakdown is roughly 25% saturated, 41% monounsaturated, and 34% polyunsaturated. The absolute saturated fat content of Brazil nuts is among the highest of all nuts, surpassing even macadamia nuts.
The proteins found in Brazil nuts are very high in sulfur-containing amino acids like cysteine (8%) and methionine (18%) and are also extremely rich in glutamine, glutamic acid, and arginine. The presence of these amino acids enhances the absorption of selenium and other minerals in the nut.
As with most nuts, the Brazil nut is rich in oils, variously reported at 65-70% of seed dry weight. Brazil nut oil is clear yellowish oil, which has a pleasant and sweet smell and taste.
Its texture and aroma gives it great versatility for use in a wide array of innovative personal care products. Brazil Nut Oil's high selenium content offers strong antioxidant properties. When used in personal care products, Brazil Oil hydrates and softens the skin.
Today, Brazil nut oil is used in soaps, shampoos and hair conditioning/repair products. As a hair conditioner it brings shine, silkiness, malleability and softness to hair. It helps renew dry, lifeless hair and split-ends and allows hair to remain soft and silky. It provides stabilising detergent properties and helps clean the hair.
Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. In plantations, each tree will produce 30-80 kg of nuts, and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. They grow very well in tropical climates with ample rainfall, but also adapt to dry climates. Candlenut's need little if any care after they are established.
Kukui Nut Oil is a clear, pale, yellow, non-greasy oil, ranking very high amongst polyunsaturated vegetable oils, and can be used for skin and hair care. It is high in linoleic and linolenic acids. Kukui nut Oil also contains Vitamin A, E and F, and therefore, it is a good oil for anti-aging, revitalising and especially restoring sun damaged skin. The oil has been known to be often used in products that treat psoriasis and eczema, as well as acne.