Ginger is a well known spice and flavoring agent which has also been used in traditional medicine in many countries. This large seasonal plant is cultivated in Southeast Asia and China, India, and some parts of Africa.
Ginger, a source of valuable phytonutrients, is characterized as having an aromatic odor and a pungent taste. The part of the ginger plant that is used is the root. The flat surfaces of the rhizome are removed, leaving the remains of the underground stem. Ginger contains essential oils including gingerol and zingiberene. It also contains pungent principles such as zingerone, gingerol and shogaol.
For centuries, in Ayurvedic and Tibetan systems of medicine, ginger has been used in the management of headache, nervous diseases, nausea, and vomiting. Ginger has been noted to treat migraine headaches without side-effects. In addition, it is also recommended in the management of rheumatic disorders and muscular pain.
|Botanical name||Zingiber Officinale|
Major chemical constituents
The rhizome contains 1–4% essential oil and an oleoresin. The composition of the essential oil varies as a function of geographical origin, but the chief con- stituent sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (responsible for the aroma) seem to remain constant.
These compounds include (-)-zingiberene, (+)-ar-curcumene, (-)-beta-sesquiphellandrene, and beta-bisabolene. Monoterpene aldehydes and alcohols are also present.
The constituents responsible for the pungent taste of the drug and possibly part of its anti-emetic properties have been identified as 1-(3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyalkan-3-ones, known as [3–6]-, -, -, and -gingerols (having a side-chain with 7–10, 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms, respectively) and their corresponding dehydration products, which are known as shogaols (1, 4, 6, 14, 19).
Representative structures of zingiberene, gingerols and shogaols are presented below.
|Product description||Product specification||MSDS|
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